ECC Platform Library


Lake Chad Crisis - Knowledge Hub

20 August, 2018
Raquel Munayer and Stella Schaller (adelphi)
The Lake Chad crisis is becoming one of the worst humanitarian disasters since World War II, and climate change is considered one of the drivers. In the four countries that surround Lake Chad (Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria), about 17 million people are affected by the emergency, struggling with food insecurity, widespread violence, involuntary displacement, and the consequences of environmental degradation. An estimated 800,000 children suffer from acute malnutrition; and although international donors pledged $672 million in February, the famine and humanitarian misery continues unabated. Suicide bombings and attacks by Boko Haram have forced many people to leave their homes and farmers to leave their lands, interrupting livelihoods and reducing food supplies.

Lake Chad, climate, conflict

© Arno Trümper


Latest updates

  • On October 2019, two launch events of the Shoring Up Stability report take place: in Berlin, Germany and Niamey, Niger.
  • On 15 May 2019, the report "Shoring Up Stability: Addressing Climate & Fragility Risks in the Lake Chad Region" is launched by adelphi.
  • On 3-4 September 2018, donors and NGOs working in Africa’s Lake Chad region met in Berlin to pledge money for humanitarian needs and to improve coordination, trying to better link short-term aid with long-term development projects in this crisis-hit region. Access here the meeting's key findings.
  • On 11 July, Sweden chaired the United Nations Security Council debate on climate-related security risks. UN Deputy Secretary-General Amina Mohammed stressed the complex relationship between climate change and conflict in the Lake Chad region and called action on climate change an integral part of building a culture of prevention and ensuring peace.
  • On 5-8 July 2018 a high-level  joint United Nations-African Union delegation visited the Lake Chad region. The delegation included Swedish Foreign Minister Margot Wallström who stressed the need to address the links between climate and security at the United Nations Security Council.
  • 7 May 2018, adelphi launches the Climate-Fragility Profile: Lake Chad Basin at the 2018 Stockholm Forum for Peace and Development. It summarizes the key challenges the Lake Chad region is experiencing as a consequence of the interplay between climate change and fragility.
  • 22 March 2018, the UN Security Council discusses the security situation in the Lake Chad Basin and listens to a range of experts, among them Sigrid Kaag (Dutch Foreign Trade Minister), Amina J. Mohammed (Deputy Secretary-General of the UN and a former Minister of Environment of Nigeria), Chitra Nagarajan (independent conflict adviser) and Mohammed Bila (representative of the Lake Chad Basin Commission).
  • 30 January 2018, the UN Security Council takes another step forward in substantively addressing the security implications of climate change by issuing a Presidential Statement that addresses the intersection of climate change and stability across West Africa and the Sahel. It is significant due to its specificity of geography (West Africa and the Sahel) and substance (calling for “risk assessment and risk management strategies”), as well as its scale, covering far more countries than last year’s Lake Chad resolution.
  • 12 December 2017, 350 experts on climate and security launch The Hague Declaration, which contains six recommendations, including one on supporting the integrated risk assessment on Lake Chad.
  • 12-13 December 2017, at the Planetary Security Conference 2017 local policy-makers and experts, civil society and the international community exchanged views and lessons learned on climate-fragility risks and existing activities in the Lake Chad region.
  • 26-27 October 2017, the G7 Working Group on Climate Change and Fragility met in Rome where its members were briefed on the climate-fragility risks in the Lake Chad region.
  • On 12 October 2017, in an address to the Security Council, the UN Secretary General pointed out that 8.5 million people are in need of humanitarian assistance in the Lake Chad region and called for the development of a regional strategy to fight the root causes of the crisis.
  • 13 September 2017, a report by the UN Secretary General was presented to the Security Council emphasising the urgency of the situation and the importance of addressing the root causes of the crisis.
  • On 6 September 2017, The Oslo Consultative Group on the Prevention and Stabilization in the Lake Chad region met for the first time in Berlin.
  • On 30 August 2017, the UN Secretary General presented a report to the UN Security Council, stressing the challenges arising from Boko Haram’s terrorist activities in the Lake Chad Basin region.
  • 5 May 2017, during a multistakeholder workshop in Stockholm different international and local organisations and experts discussed the situation in the Lake Chad region and ways to address the crisis.
  • 29 April 2017, adelphi published the report Insurgency, Terrorism and Organised Crime in a Warming Climate with a case study on Lake Chad, pointing out the vicious cycle of violence, conflict and fragility which is exacerbated by the impacts of climate change in the region.
  • 31 March 2017, the UNSC resolution on security on Lake Chad recognised that climate change impacts on the fragile security situation in the region and called upon the UN and governments to conduct adequate risk assessments and develop management strategies.
  • On 24 February 2017, Germany, Nigeria, Norway and the United Nations co-hosted the Oslo Humanitarian Conference on Nigeria and the Lake Chad Region. 14 donors pledged $672 million for relief aid. The conference put a particular focus on the needs of women, children and youth as well as longer-term support for the crisis-affected population.


  • Mohamed’s Story: The Climate Conflict Trap in the Lake Chad Basin - Years ago, Mohamed’s family had enough to eat, despite being poor. His daughter owned a vegetable stall at a bustling market in northeastern Nigeria. The family had options: during the dry season, when Lake Chad was shallow, Mohamed could farm; and during the wet season, he could fish or graze his cattle.

           >>> Continue reading the comic in English or French.

  • CASE-STUDY: Conflict and Armed Opposition Groups in the Lake Chad Basin - The people living around Lake Chad are currently suffering from an intertwined humanitarian and security crisis. Clashes between military forces and Boko Haram over territory, attacks on civilians, and heavy handed counter-insurgency measures are worsening displacement, food insecurity and eroding of trust in political authorities. The government’s approach, often centred on military operations, has often undermined local livelihoods adding to the pressures already faced by communities living in conflict areas. Combined social, economic and political developments underlie the current situation while pressures brought by climate change could compound its severity.

  • VIDEO (4 min.): Climate change is a critical factor in Lake Chad crisis conflict trap - "Shoring Up Stability" report: Lake Chad is caught in a conflict trap. It is experiencing one of the world’s worst humanitarian emergencies with an estimated 10.7 million people in need of assistance. Now a new G7 mandated report from the Berlin-based think tank adelphi shows, for the first time, how climate change is interacting with the conflict to compound the crisis and sets out how these challenges might be overcome.

  • Event summary: HLPF Side Event "Climate, Fragility and the SDGs: Lessons from Lake Chad" at the Delegation of the EU to the UN in New York on 10 July 2019.

  • CASE-STUDY: Climate and Fragility Risks in the Lake Chad Region - The people of Lake Chad are caught in a conflict trap. Clashes between state security forces and armed opposition groups have become entangled with local tensions over fishing and grazing rights. Meanwhile, climatic changes may bring new challenges for regional cooperation, which underpins human security and ultimately, a viable political solution to the crisis in the Lake Chad region.

  • News on the Lake Chad crisis – Interview with Mohammed Bila, Lake Chad Basin Commission: The issues that afflict the Lake Chad basin cross sectors and national borders – and so should their solutions. Mohammed Bila from the Lake Chad Basin Commission gives an overview of the main political developments in the last two years. He stresses that there is much to be done by local actors in responding to emergencies, but that the international community has a central role to play in breaking the climate conflict trap.

  • Climate Change, Peace and Security in the Lake Chad Basin: This flyer summarizes the key findings and take-aways that emerged in the meeting with donors and NGOs active in the Lake Chad Basin, held on 3-4 September 2018 in Berlin.

  • Lake Chad Region – Climate-related security risk assessment: In this report, the Expert Working Group on Climate-Related Security Risks provides a climate-related security risk assessment and options for climate risk management strategies in the Lake Chad region.

  • Climate-Fragility Profile: Lake Chad Basin: This Climate-Fragility profile is envisaged as a first component of a Climate-Fragility Risk Assessment process. It summarizes the key challenges the Lake Chad region is experiencing as a consequence of the interplay between climate change and fragility.

  • We must not get stuck in policy circles – How to handle climate change and conflict at Lake Chad - The Lake Chad region experiences a multitude of crises: lack of employment and education opportunities, resource scarcity and violent conflict, all exacerbated by the effects of climate change, making the Lake Chad region Africa’s largest humanitarian emergency. At the margins of the Planetary Security Conference 2017, we spoke with the independent conflict adviser Chitra Nagarajan about the region’s future.
  • VIDEO (10 min): Lake Chad – Tackling Climate-Fragility Risks - The world’s most extensive humanitarian crisis since 1945 is currently playing out in the four countries that surround Lake Chad: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria. Multiple stressors converge in the region. Unemployment, violent insurgencies, poverty and depleting resources interact with climate change and create a perfect storm of climate-fragility risks. The international community must act, in order to secure lives and livelihoods.
  • NEWS: G7 Working Group Meeting on Climate and Fragility in Rome - What will come next for G7 action on climate and fragility? From 25-27 October 2017, G7 representatives gathered in Rome to discuss pathways to manage the climate-fragility nexus, and exchange views on climate-related issues such as food security, involuntary migration and land resources. adelphi convened a targeted workshop on the design of the new G7 risk assessment on Lake Chad and steps to respond to the crisis in the region.
  • REPORT: UN Secretary General's Report on Lake Chad Crisis - On 13 September, Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs Jeffrey Feltman briefed the Security Council on the Secretary-General’s 7 September report on the situation in Lake Chad Basin region (S/2017/764). The Council requested the report in resolution 2349, which it adopted on 31 March following its visiting mission to the Lake Chad Basin in early March.
  • VIDEO: UN Security Council mission to Lake Chad 2017 - Interview with Carl Skau - In April 2017, the UN Security Council sent a mission to the Lake Chad region, where the largest humanitarian crisis is currently playing out. Carl Skau, Ambassador and UN Security Council Coordinator from Sweden, went on that mission and tells us what he saw in Nigeria and Chad, and what struck him most. It is imperative to now follow-up on that visit, and firmly establish climate security risks in the Council's work.


  • CASE STUDY: Lake Chad - Interstate Conflicts and Cooperation - Between 1963 and the present day, the surface of Lake Chad has shrunk by 50%. In the context of increasing environmental change, long-term stability requires the cooperation of the co-riparians to elaborate sustainable strategies to manage the basin region.


  • VIDEO: Climate Change, Marginalization, Terrorism - What to do about Lake Chad? – Interview with Dan Smith - What are solutions, or approaches, to climate change and fragility in the Lake Chad region? How to tackle compound problems such as climate change, migration and terrorism? Dan Smith, Director of SIPRI, explains why the Lake Chad Basin is one of the greatest trouble spots of our time, and what measures need to be taken. The most important is governance, followed by actual security measures, and management of scarce water resources.


  • INTERVIEW: Lake Chad – The most complex humanitarian crisis of our time? - The world’s most extensive humanitarian crisis is currently playing out in the Lake Chad region, with some 17 million people affected, and 7 million suffering food insecurity. We spoke with Ambassador Hinrich Thölken, Permanent Representative of Germany to FAO, WFP and IFAD, who travelled to both Nigeria and Chad to gain a better understanding of the different compound pressures.
  • NEWS: Climate-fragility risks in Lake Chad on the agenda at Stockholm Forum on Security and Development - adelphi, along with partners SIPRI and SEI, are organizing a side event at the forthcoming Stockholm Forum of Security and Development from 3-4 May on “Climate-fragility risks in the Lake Chad region – scope for conflict prevention and resilience building”. The event will bring together experts from the region along with representatives of donor and development cooperation organizations to discuss how to better link peacebuilding with climate change adaptation to build resilience against climate-fragility risks.
  • BLOG: Capturing double exposures in Lake Chad - In an article recently published in Regional Environmental Change, Uche Okpara, Lindsay Stringer, and Andrews Dougill discuss the development and application of a climate-water conflict vulnerability index to assess communities along the southeastern shores of Lake Chad in the Republic of Congo.


Further resources

BlogA New Climate for Peace





Tags sub-saharan africa cimate change water land & food security gender environment & migration conflict transformation development early warning & risk analysis


Adaptation & Resilience

All countries will need to adapt to some of the environmental, social and economic impacts of climate change that are already unavoidable. Food security, livelihoods, water resource availability and public health are some affected areas. People living in poverty are more vulnerable, having a lower capacity to adapt. Thus, it is essential to promote resilience building. The adaptation and resilience aspects need to be mainstreamed into planning by policy makers and the private sector as well as integrated into development strategies.

Biodiversity & Livelihoods

Nature protection is most sustainable if it essentially contributes to the long-term stability of human needs. Today many regions around the world are confronted with increasing destruction of the natural foundations of life. The consequences of wide-ranging resource destruction are no longer regionally limited, but rather represent a global threat. Those affected are mainly rural populations, who find the sources of their income and the foundations of their way of life swept away. The depletion and destruction of natural resources goes hand in hand with decreasing agricultural yields and increasing poverty, which in turn forces the affected populations to deplete the remaining resources.

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Capacity Building

On the one hand, conflicts are caused by structural factors, such as economic and social inequality or environmental destruction. On the other hand, conflicts are fuelled by a lack of democratic structures, deficient mechanisms of non-violent conflict settlement, inadequate rule of law, the destruction of social and cultural identity and the disregard of human rights. Against this backdrop, development policies have been dedicated to a broad concept of security, which comprises political, economic, ecological and social stability. As a consequence, development cooperation agencies and actors have developed a broad spectrum of approaches for conflict prevention and transformation as well as for sustainable use of natural resources.

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Civil Society

Civil society is the first victim of environmental pollution, under-development and conflicts. Economically disadvantaged and politically marginalized population groups are particularly affected by violent conflicts as well as increasing resource degradation. Simultaneously, civil society is a fundamental pillar for implementing sustainable development. It contributes in many ways to strengthening conflict prevention and plays a significant role in the peaceful and democratic development of states. It must be supported to strengthen civil rights, adherence to human rights in general and democratic participation.

Climate Change

Climate change resulting from the emission of greenhouse gases represents one of the vital challenges for international environmental policy. Flooding, droughts, shifting of climate zones and increasingly frequent and intense extreme weather events will have serious economic and social consequences for entire regions. The climate problem is also directly linked to the question of future energy generation.

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Climate Diplomacy

To address the challenges posed by climate change, a new profile of climate diplomacy is evolving. This utilises a full range of policies, including development cooperation, conflict prevention efforts, and humanitarian assistance, in addition to more traditional measures of climate change adaptation and mitigation. Moving from a risk analysis of climate-related threats to well-timed preventive action requires a greater commitment to integrating climate change concerns into development, foreign, and security policies. Examples include strengthening diplomatic networks, building new alliances with partners, and raising awareness – not only of potentially negative climate change impacts, but also of opportunities to embark on a sustainable transformation of our societies.

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Climate action entails an array of economic, social, political and environmental co-benefits. It provides an opportunity for economic growth and new jobs. Many investments can take into account climate considerations without becoming more costly. Further important co-benefits include: improved energy security, less local air and water pollution, health benefits as well as ecosystem and biodiversity protection.

Conflict Transformation

In order to overcome the structural causes of violent conflicts and thus bring about an improvement in the framework conditions for peaceful and fair development, it is essential to have long term and broadly planned peace development and peace advancement. Various governmental and non-governmental, national and international actors and groups are involved in these processes.

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Climate change and development are inextricably linked. Climate change endangers the development agenda and has the potential to reverse development goals. Furthermore, successful mitigation of climate change heavily depends on development choices around the world. Therefore, development strategies need to be climate-compatible to provide long-term success, and there are viable policy options that support this compatibility. Many mitigation and adaptation activities can present development opportunities to developing countries and avoid the lock-in to environmentally damaging technologies.

Early Warning & Risk Analysis

The reasons for the development and escalation of conflicts and the incidence of risks are multifaceted and complex. Simultaneously, the assessment of the specific causes in the form of risk and conflict analyses can contribute to a better understanding of these processes and make it possible to provide warning of negative developments, or ideally help prevent them. In the context of natural resource use, risks and conflicts have gained increasing attention in the past years. The debate on possible future water wars is merely one example.

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The well-being of individuals, communities and nations depends on the availability of energy resources. The gap between energy supply and demand appears to be growing, making the world vulnerable to serious economic shocks. At the same time, the burning of fossil fuels causing climate change is one of the vital challenges of international environmental policy. So far, only rudimentary approaches exist for shaping climate and energy security in a sustainable way. The components of a strategy that can contribute to reducing vulnerabilities related to climate change and energy policy include a greater role for renewable energies, the improvement of energy efficiency and a stronger decentralisation of energy supply.

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Environment & Migration

The economic, social and environmental consequences of climate change aggravate the breakdown of eco-system-dependent livelihoods and are likely to become dominant drivers of long-term migration. Natural disasters already cause massive shorter-term displacement and the number of temporarily displaced people is likely to further increase with climate change. For vulnerable populations in vulnerable regions, such as the Sahel zone or the Ganges delta, migration often becomes the sole survival strategy. In order to address climate-related displacement and migration successfully, knowledge of effective adaptation and an improved understanding of how environmental change affects human mobility is essential. 

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Climate finance, from all sources, plays a key role in supporting and enabling adaptation and mitigation action as well as climate and energy innovation. The Paris Agreement ensured that the Green Climate Fund and the Global Environment Facility are at the core of climate finance architecture as entities entrusted with the operation of the Financial Mechanism of the UNFCCC. Increasing climate finance from all relevant public and private sources is crucial. Furthermore, much needs to be done to redirect finance flows to sustainable paths, e.g. reducing fossil fuel subsidies, introducing maritime and air transportation taxes. The conditions for green investment in developing countries should also be improved.


Forests are disappearing at an alarming rate. Competition for forest resources triggers, exacerbates, or finances numerous crises and conflicts in tropical developing countries. Illegal logging and timber trade foster instability and sometimes violent conflict by strengthening illegal and armed groups, increasing corruption and exacerbating use and claim conflicts among local communities, the state and the business sector. Forests are a vital resource to poor people but they can also become areas of conflict. Sustainable management of forest resources is therefore key to preventing violent conflict over and within forests.

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Gender plays an important role as a category of conflict for many reasons. The interlinkages between gender, environment and conflicts are complex and much research is still needed. Existing insights suggest that conflicts may worsen gender inequalities that existed before the outbreak of violence. The unequal distribution of land property rights in many parts of the world serves as an example. Moreover, women (and children) are among those most affected by both violent conflict and natural disasters. At the same time, women carry much of the burden of trying to implement rehabilitation measures after crisis events.

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Land & Food

Increasing water scarcity, desertification and crop failures due to extreme weather events are becoming more and more of a threat to global food production. While the world’s population continues to grow rapidly, food production is unable to keep pace. Due to the global food crisis in 2008, the number of hungry people reached the symbolic one billion threshold for the first time – corresponding to about 16 percent of world population. Food insecurity may be a consequence or cause of conflicts. Violent conflicts often lead to the destruction of agricultural infrastructure and means of production, as well as to the displacement of local communities.

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Minerals & Mining

In the past, the discovery and tapping of valuable or strategic resources like valuable minerals, oil and natural gas, particularly in developing and emerging countries, has often led to large scale environmental contamination and negative development. The "resource curse" of some countries shows that the wealth from resource yields is frequently unfairly distributed; instead of serving development it advanced the formation of corrupt elites and in some cases even led to conflicts and civil wars. Measures in various sectors and at all levels are important in order to use the potential of these natural resources in a manner that is sustainable and prevents conflicts.

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Private Sector

The spread of violent conflict not only affects people but also companies located in such regions. Destruction of investments and infrastructure, collapse of markets and trade partnerships, flight and expulsion of employees are phenomena of conflicts and environment-induced crises that directly affect companies in unstable regions. Almost all branches of the economy thus have a clear interest in a stable and peaceful environment for their activities. Conversely, the business sector plays an important role in the interaction of economic growth, social development and a healthy environment, all of which can advance peace and sustainable development. 

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Environmental issues have a significant security dimension. Access to, and overuse of, natural resources often play a key role in civil wars or other forms of internal domestic conflict. This is compounded by climate change and environmental degradation. Climate change is now widely recognised as a non-traditional, risk-multiplying threat that will have increasing security impacts. Key risks with possible implications for human and national security include water scarcity, food crises, natural disasters, and displacement. More preventive diplomacy and advocacy is needed to address the strategic implications of climate and environmental change.

Sustainable Transformation

Sustainable Transformation allows societies to profit from a growing, environmentally sustainable and socially inclusive economy – especially in emerging and developing countries. This requires a higher up-front investment, but the benefits of a sustainable transformation in the medium and long term are significant. For instance, energy cost savings and reducing the impact of price volatility offer major incentives for deploying renewable energies and promoting energy efficiency. Such benefits exist in all key sectors of the economy.

Technology & Innovation

Innovations and technologies are already readily available and affordable but their global diffusion and uptake remains a challenge. Innovation and technology are crucial to achieving ambitious climate change mitigation and adaptation targets. However, research and development often do not receive appropriate public support. Developing countries can leapfrog high-carbon industrialisation phases by adopting, deploying and improving existing innovations and technologies. For this, it is essential to minimise financial, administrative and political barriers.


The availability of freshwater resources in sufficient quantity and quality is essential for the preservation of human health and sound ecosystems. The use of water resources is also vital, however, for economic development: whether for agriculture, industrial production or for electricity generation. The world's freshwater resources are distributed very unevenly in terms of geography and seasons. In addition, water shortage is becoming more prevalent in several regions due to population growth, economic development, urbanisation and increasing environmental pollution. Thus, water resources can hold potential for conflicts between parties who have different interests and needs.

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The environment in Asia is already under tremendous pressure as a result of the unsustainable use of land, forests, water and even air in many regions. Climate change will only exacerbate these challenges. Rising sea levels will likely endanger densely populated areas, changes in the monsoon patterns can strongly impact agriculture, melting glaciers will increase long-term water scarcity, and extreme weather events such as heavy rainfall and cyclones can pose further hazards.

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Central America & Caribbean

Natural disasters and water scarcity are key challenges for most of Central America and the Caribbean. These challenges will become even more pronounced as the climate changes. Weak resource and disaster risk management and land disputes pose additional security challenges for large parts of the region. Several countries of Central America and the Caribbean have limited adaptive capacities as they face political instability caused by high social inequality, crime, corruption, and intra-state conflicts.

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As one of the most developed and most densely populated regions in the world, Europe makes heavy use of its resources, resulting in difficult trade-offs and negative consequences for the environment and ecosystems. Land is used for settlements, agriculture and dense infrastructure, creating problems of soil degradation. Water resources are stressed due to unsustainable agricultural practices. Despite nature protection policies, Europe continues to lose biodiversity at an alarming pace. Some of these trends are exacerbated by climate change, which is expected, for instance, to lead to shifts in water availability.

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Global Issues

Resource scarcities, environmental pollution and climate change are not limited by national borders, but often have a transboundary or even global impact. These issues interact with political stability, governance structures and economic performance, and can trigger or worsen disputes and violent conflicts. Exacerbating some of these trends, climate change is likely to lead to the degradation of freshwater resources, declines in food production, increases in storm and flood disasters and environmentally induced migration. All these developments pose potential for conflict.

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Middle East & North Africa

The geopolitical position of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), its fossil fuel resources, high population growth and the political changes spurred by the Arab Spring all make the region one of the most dynamic in the world. Nevertheless, it is also one of the most arid and environmentally stressed. Dwindling water resources, limited arable and grazing land, high pollution from household and industrial waste, remnants of conflicts and increasing desertification are key environmental challenges.

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North America

Climate change has various impacts on the three North American countries of Canada, Mexico and the US. Canada and the US have well-developed adaptive capacities and foster the strengthening of capacities in other regions as well. With high per capita emissions, these two countries also bear a greater responsibility for a changing climate. Mexico has a sound national strategy for climate change adaptation, yet fewer capacities than Canada and the US. The poorer and rural populations of Mexico are especially vulnerable to climate change, due to an increased sensitivity and a lower adaptive capacity.

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Oceania & Pacific

In Oceania, population growth and economic development trends put a strain on oceanic and island ecosystems. Freshwater scarcity, overexploitation of fisheries, loss of land biodiversity, forests and trees, invasive species, soil degradation, increasing levels of settlement, poor management of solid and hazardous waste and disproportionate use of coastal areas are some of the problems. Climate change exacerbates most of these trends, while also raising questions about the future sovereignty of some island states.

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South America

South America has diverse and unique ecosystems and is very rich in biodiversity. Weak natural resource management, land disputes and extreme weather events bring about significant challenges for the region. While South America accounts for relatively few CO2 emissions, the changing climate will alter its ecosystems and greater climate variability will lead to more hurricanes, landslides, and droughts.

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Sub-Saharan Africa

In many African states, environmental security issues rank high on the political agenda. Throughout the continent, countries suffer from water scarcity, food insecurity and energy poverty. These chronic and worsening resource scarcities have severe livelihood implications and are exacerbated by political conflicts over access to and control over these resources. Climate change may seriously threaten political and economic stability in Africa. It may also put a severe strain on the capacities of states and societies to co-ordinate activities, to communicate and to organize.

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