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Water Resources Distribution - Ica River Basin in Peru

Type of conflict main
Intensity 1
Region
South America
Time 2006 ‐ ongoing
Countries Peru
Resources Agricultural / Pastoral Land, Water
Conflict Summary The situation of increasing water scarcity, exacerbated by climate change and different water uses, has led to conflicts over water management in the Ica...
Water Resources Distribution - Ica River Basin in Peru
The situation of increasing water scarcity, exacerbated by climate change and different water uses, has led to conflicts over water management in the Ica River Basin, Departments of Huancavelica and Ica, Peru. In this particular conflict, the needs of an agro-export model have clashed with the local self-supply-oriented economy. Currently, the conflict is in a latent stage, but new water infrastructure projects proposed by the national government may escalate the situation.
Conceptual Model

Climate Change

In the last few years, there has been a change in the distribution of rainfall patterns in the high-altitude plateau (altiplano) of Peru. The effects of these changes in the rainy months are especially felt in the agricultural sector.

Intermediary Mechanisms

The Department of Huancavelica is an altiplano region facing water scarcity problems, which have limited its agricultural activity and has been limited to subsistence farming.

Fragility and Conflict Risks

The rural population in the altiplano fears further reduction of available water and an increase in negative effects on their ecosystems as a result of the proposed water infrastructure projects by the government. Diverging interests have created conflicts between leaders of the Ica and Huancavelica Departments.

Climate ChangeEnvironmental ChangeIntermediary MechanismsFragility and Conflict RisksSocial and Economic DriversChanging climate leads to decreased water availability.Infrastructure development changes the allocation of water.Water scarcity undermines water-dependent livelihoods.Livelihood insecurity fuels grievances between groups.Livelihood insecurity leads to growing discontent with the state.A slow change in climatic conditions, particularly temperature and precipitation.Gradual Change in Temperature and/or PrecipitationAn increase in the scarcity of clean water and/or an increased variability in water supply.Increased Water ScarcityConstruction of major infrastructure, such as dams, canals or roads.Infrastructure DevelopmentA threat or destruction of livelihoods dependent on the availability of environmental resources / goods.Livelihood InsecurityNon-violent or violent tensions and conflicts between different societal groups.Grievances between Societal GroupsChallenge to the state's legitimacy, ranging from peaceful protest to violent attempts at overthrowing the government.Anti-State Grievances
Context Factors
  • Water-stressed Area
Conflict History

The Ica River's headwaters are located in the high-altitude plateau (altiplano). The natural discharge and the volume of the Ica River depend on the limited rainfall during rainy-season months (from December to March); the river is dry by April. Agriculture in the Department of Ica depends partly on water resources from the Ica River. The Department of Ica is on the central southern coast of Peru’s coast, with a desert ecosystem and soil suitable for agriculture. According to preliminary figures from the Fourth National Agricultural Census of 2012, the agricultural sector grew 10.5% from 2011 to 2012, due to growth in the agricultural (7.6%) and livestock (15.6%) sub-sectors.

Major economic discrepancies between the Ica Valley and Huancavelica
The Ica Valley has become one of the country’s main agro-export zones; it has created  employment and contributed greatly to the country’s gross domestic product. Meanwhile, Huancavelica has some of Peru's highest levels of poverty and extreme poverty. In terms of regional and social inequality, the Ica River valley demonstrates the juxtaposition of both prosperity and privation.

Huancavelica's situation
The Department of Huancavelica is an altiplano region located 2,200 to 4,500 meters above sea level. It is mostly a rural department, with low population density and ongoing outward migration due to the lack of options to escape extreme poverty within the region. Another problem the region faces is the scarcity of available water, which limits agricultural activity. Lack of sufficient water resources means that there are fewer agricultural areas under irrigation; therefore, the Huancavelica department depends fundamentally on dryland agriculture, limiting this activity to subsistence farming. To compound the problem, much of the potential productive soil in the mid-basin is located on terraces, which have been largely abandoned due to the lack of technologies needed to increase the productivity of these areas.

Change in weather patterns
In the last few years, there has been a change in the distribution of rainfall patterns in the altiplano. The actual rainfall amount, however, has not decreased. The effects of these changes in the rainy months are felt in the agricultural sector. Moreover, stakeholders are concerned about increasing cold in the high-altitude Andean areas that can affect  the raising of camellids (llamas and alpacas) and require additional infrastructure to care for these animals, among other things (Herz, 2014).

Diverging interests
The conflict involves the agro-export sectors in the Department of Ica that demand  more water for their economic activities, and the rural sectors and political authorities in the mid- and upper basin that call for a fairer distribution of water in order to deal with shortages of productive land (Herz, 2014). On the coast, high water demand for the farming sector, since the early 1900s, has led to the construction of water catchment infrastructure in order to transfer water from the altiplano. This major increase in water enabled a boom in irrigated crops in the Ica Valley, mainly for export. The 2007 asparagus boom propelled the vegetable to the top in terms of water usage. Asparagus now uses 35% of the total water in the valley, relegating cotton to second place at 22%. The rural economy, mid-sized farmers, agro-export companies (with the boom for new crops) and Ica’s population growth, are in macro terms the main drivers of demand for water resources in the Ica River watershed. At this time, agriculture_ accounts for 90% of total water usage. Water for human consumption is only 10% of the total (ATA Sweco, 2000, in Herz, 2014).

National Government's projects
Because of the increased demand for water by the agro-export sector, the National Government has proposed new water infrastructure projects. According to public commitments by the National Government, several of these projects are considered top priority and of national interest, with budget allocations totalling some 230 million dollars.; however,these economic measures have never been discussed with the stakeholders in the upper watershed (Herz, 2014). In view of these new projects, the population in the altiplano fears further reduction of available water and an increase in negative effects on their ecosystems. Five decades ago, residents experienced changes in high-altitude ecosystems after the implementation of a water transfer project. This project also had considerable social and economic impacts, especially concerning water usage in the rural communities of the districts of Pilpichaca and Santa Ana (Herz, 2014).

Resolution Efforts

There have been different periods of latency and recent reappearance of conflict. In 2006, the Regional Government of Huancavelica asked the Regional Government of Ica to suspend field work for the Choclococha Developed – Regrowth of the Choclococha Dam and Ingahuasi Collection Canal project, and also requested information about the work being done. The Huancavelica government sent letters to the Council of Ministers and to the Presidency of the Republic, asking them to suspend work on the Ingahuasi Collection Canal; however, none of these requests were accepted.

Master Plan for integrated management of the Ica River basin
Another important endeavour was the Ministry Resolution Nº 396-2006-PCM, which set up a commission to formulate and propose a Master Plan for integrated management of the Ica River basin. The commission was comprised of a representative of the National Water Resource Intendency, a representative of the Ica ATDR, two representatives per Regional Government, a representative of PETACC, a representative of the Rural Communities of Huancavelica, and a representative of the Huancavelica Water Management Group. They met four times in 2006 until the initiative was discontinued.

Complaint by the Rural Community of Carhuancho
A significant development in the conflict was the complaint by the Rural Community of Carhuancho in Huancavelica against the Peruvian Government, the Regional Government of Ica and PETACC. The complaint was formally entitled "Violation of the human right to water of the Indigenous Community of Carhuancho by construction of the Ingahuasi Collection Canal in the Choclococha Project, Huancavelica, Peru" and was brought on 8 October 2007. The Latin American Water Tribunal ruled in favour of the Rural Community of Carhuancho, stating that that the rights of the community had been violated by the project to construct the Ingahuasi collection canal.

Adaptation to Climate Change project in Ica and Huancavelica
Since 2013, an initiative by the Adaption to Climate Change project in Ica and Huancavelica (ACCIH) by the German Corporation for International Cooperation (GIZ) has worked to generate dialogue among authorities and leaders of the two Departments (Ica and Huancavelica) while also forming the  Basin’s Water Resources Council, an inter-institutional management entity established by the new Water Resources Law. This approach was also supported by the project for Regional Dialogue on Environmental and Natural Resource Management in the Andean Countries (DIRMAPA) by GIZ. Later in 2014, progress was made in motivating key watershed stakeholders to establish new rules for integrated water resource management; however, the lack of political will among national authorities, who are more inclined to favour agrarian export policies, has made it difficult to reach stable agreements.

Outlook
There has been progress in studies on the potential of the mid- and upper basin. These studies provide sounder technical arguments for negotiation and dialogue, focused on a territorial development approach (Herz, 2014). The high number of actors with different interests, the mistrust between those actors and the fragility oflocal state institutions makes dialogue difficult; therefore, there is a need for a gradual, long-term process that includes a participative zoning process and sustainable water policies.

Intensities & Influences
conflict intensity scale
Intensities
International / Geopolitical Intensity
Human Suffering

Influences
Environmental Influences
Societal Influences

Fatalities
0
Violent Conflict No
Salience within nation National
Mass Displacement None
Cross Border Mass Displacement No
Resources
Agricultural / Pastoral Land, Water
Resolution Success
Reduction in geographical scope There has been no reduction in geographical scope.
Increased capacity to address grievance in the future There is no increased capacity to address grievances in the future.
Grievance Resolution Grievances have been mostly addressed.
Causal Attribution of Decrease in Conflict Intensity Conflict resolution strategies have been clearly responsible for the decrease in conflict intensity.
General opencollapse
Country Data in Comparison
ConflictNoData Created with Sketch.
Fault Lines Defining Conflict Parties
Purely Environmental | Cultural   ♦   Occupational   ♦   Economic   ♦   Urban / Rural   ♦   National / International conflict   ♦   Sub-national political


Actors
Participation Conflict Party     Conflict Resolution Facilitator
Peruvian government
Functional GroupPublic
Geographical ScaleInternal National
Regional Government of Huancavelica
Functional GroupPublic
Geographical ScaleInternal National
Regional Government of Ica
Functional GroupPublic
Geographical ScaleInternal National
Huancavelica Water Management Group
Functional GroupPublic
Geographical ScaleInternal Grassroots
Rural Community of Carhuancho
Functional GroupCivil Society
Geographical ScaleInternal Grassroots
Proyecto Especial Tambo Ccaracocha – PETACC
Functional GroupPublic
Geographical ScaleInternal National
National Water Resource Intendency (Peru)
Functional GroupPublic
Geographical ScaleInternal National
Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit - GIZ
Functional GroupPublic
Geographical ScaleExternal
Latin American Water Tribunal
Functional GroupPublic
Geographical ScaleInternal National
Entry Points for Resilience and Peace Building
3 Dialogue The German Corporation for International Cooperation (GIZ) created the Adaption to Climate Change project in Ica and Huancavelica (ACCIH) with the aim of generating dialogue between the leaders of the Ica and Huancavelica departments. While moderate progress was achieved, there are still no stable agreements made between watershed stakeholders.
0 Cooperation Studies conducted about the mid- and upper basin have provided technical arguments for a territorial development approach. However, mistrust and diverging interests among stakeholders have made cooperation difficult.
2 Mediation & arbitration The Rural Community of Carhuancho in Huancavelica filed a complaint against the Peruvian Government, the Regional Government of Ica and PETACC to the Latin American Water Tribunal. The tribunal ruled in favor of the community stating that that the rights of the community had been violated by the project to construct the Ingahuasi collection canal.
Further Details opencollapse
Conflict Characterization
Character of the contested good Common-pool resource: No one can be excluded from use but the good is depleted.
Broad conflict characterization Resource Capture is present.
Ecological Marginalization is present.
Data of involved Countries
Resources and Materials opencollapse

References without URL
Herz, C. (2014). Case study on socio-environmental conflict in priority watersheds of Ica and Huancavelica, GIZ ACCIH- DIRMAPA, October 2014.
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Topics

Adaptation & Resilience

All countries will need to adapt to some of the environmental, social and economic impacts of climate change that are already unavoidable. Food security, livelihoods, water resource availability and public health are some affected areas. People living in poverty are more vulnerable, having a lower capacity to adapt. Thus, it is essential to promote resilience building. The adaptation and resilience aspects need to be mainstreamed into planning by policy makers and the private sector as well as integrated into development strategies.

Biodiversity & Livelihoods

Nature protection is most sustainable if it essentially contributes to the long-term stability of human needs. Today many regions around the world are confronted with increasing destruction of the natural foundations of life. The consequences of wide-ranging resource destruction are no longer regionally limited, but rather represent a global threat. Those affected are mainly rural populations, who find the sources of their income and the foundations of their way of life swept away. The depletion and destruction of natural resources goes hand in hand with decreasing agricultural yields and increasing poverty, which in turn forces the affected populations to deplete the remaining resources.

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Capacity Building

On the one hand, conflicts are caused by structural factors, such as economic and social inequality or environmental destruction. On the other hand, conflicts are fuelled by a lack of democratic structures, deficient mechanisms of non-violent conflict settlement, inadequate rule of law, the destruction of social and cultural identity and the disregard of human rights. Against this backdrop, development policies have been dedicated to a broad concept of security, which comprises political, economic, ecological and social stability. As a consequence, development cooperation agencies and actors have developed a broad spectrum of approaches for conflict prevention and transformation as well as for sustainable use of natural resources.

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Cities

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Civil Society

Civil society is the first victim of environmental pollution, under-development and conflicts. Economically disadvantaged and politically marginalized population groups are particularly affected by violent conflicts as well as increasing resource degradation. Simultaneously, civil society is a fundamental pillar for implementing sustainable development. It contributes in many ways to strengthening conflict prevention and plays a significant role in the peaceful and democratic development of states. It must be supported to strengthen civil rights, adherence to human rights in general and democratic participation.

Climate Change

Climate change resulting from the emission of greenhouse gases represents one of the vital challenges for international environmental policy. Flooding, droughts, shifting of climate zones and increasingly frequent and intense extreme weather events will have serious economic and social consequences for entire regions. The climate problem is also directly linked to the question of future energy generation.

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Co-Benefits

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Conflict Transformation

In order to overcome the structural causes of violent conflicts and thus bring about an improvement in the framework conditions for peaceful and fair development, it is essential to have long term and broadly planned peace development and peace advancement. Various governmental and non-governmental, national and international actors and groups are involved in these processes.

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Early Warning & Risk Analysis

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Land & Food

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Private Sector

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Security

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Sustainable Transformation

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Technology & Innovation

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Water

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Regions

Asia

The environment in Asia is already under tremendous pressure as a result of the unsustainable use of land, forests, water and even air in many regions. Climate change will only exacerbate these challenges. Rising sea levels will likely endanger densely populated areas, changes in the monsoon patterns can strongly impact agriculture, melting glaciers will increase long-term water scarcity, and extreme weather events such as heavy rainfall and cyclones can pose further hazards.

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Central America & Caribbean

Natural disasters and water scarcity are key challenges for most of Central America and the Caribbean. These challenges will become even more pronounced as the climate changes. Weak resource and disaster risk management and land disputes pose additional security challenges for large parts of the region. Several countries of Central America and the Caribbean have limited adaptive capacities as they face political instability caused by high social inequality, crime, corruption, and intra-state conflicts.

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Europe

As one of the most developed and most densely populated regions in the world, Europe makes heavy use of its resources, resulting in difficult trade-offs and negative consequences for the environment and ecosystems. Land is used for settlements, agriculture and dense infrastructure, creating problems of soil degradation. Water resources are stressed due to unsustainable agricultural practices. Despite nature protection policies, Europe continues to lose biodiversity at an alarming pace. Some of these trends are exacerbated by climate change, which is expected, for instance, to lead to shifts in water availability.

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Global Issues

Resource scarcities, environmental pollution and climate change are not limited by national borders, but often have a transboundary or even global impact. These issues interact with political stability, governance structures and economic performance, and can trigger or worsen disputes and violent conflicts. Exacerbating some of these trends, climate change is likely to lead to the degradation of freshwater resources, declines in food production, increases in storm and flood disasters and environmentally induced migration. All these developments pose potential for conflict.

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Middle East & North Africa

The geopolitical position of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), its fossil fuel resources, high population growth and the political changes spurred by the Arab Spring all make the region one of the most dynamic in the world. Nevertheless, it is also one of the most arid and environmentally stressed. Dwindling water resources, limited arable and grazing land, high pollution from household and industrial waste, remnants of conflicts and increasing desertification are key environmental challenges.

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North America

Climate change has various impacts on the three North American countries of Canada, Mexico and the US. Canada and the US have well-developed adaptive capacities and foster the strengthening of capacities in other regions as well. With high per capita emissions, these two countries also bear a greater responsibility for a changing climate. Mexico has a sound national strategy for climate change adaptation, yet fewer capacities than Canada and the US. The poorer and rural populations of Mexico are especially vulnerable to climate change, due to an increased sensitivity and a lower adaptive capacity.

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Oceania & Pacific

In Oceania, population growth and economic development trends put a strain on oceanic and island ecosystems. Freshwater scarcity, overexploitation of fisheries, loss of land biodiversity, forests and trees, invasive species, soil degradation, increasing levels of settlement, poor management of solid and hazardous waste and disproportionate use of coastal areas are some of the problems. Climate change exacerbates most of these trends, while also raising questions about the future sovereignty of some island states.

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South America

South America has diverse and unique ecosystems and is very rich in biodiversity. Weak natural resource management, land disputes and extreme weather events bring about significant challenges for the region. While South America accounts for relatively few CO2 emissions, the changing climate will alter its ecosystems and greater climate variability will lead to more hurricanes, landslides, and droughts.

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Sub-Saharan Africa

In many African states, environmental security issues rank high on the political agenda. Throughout the continent, countries suffer from water scarcity, food insecurity and energy poverty. These chronic and worsening resource scarcities have severe livelihood implications and are exacerbated by political conflicts over access to and control over these resources. Climate change may seriously threaten political and economic stability in Africa. It may also put a severe strain on the capacities of states and societies to co-ordinate activities, to communicate and to organize.

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