ECC Platform Library


Pueblo Viejo Mining Conflict in Dominican Republic

Type of conflict main
Intensity 3
Time 2006 ‐ ongoing
Countries Dominican Rep.
Resources Biodiversity, Air (Pollution), Agricultural / Pastoral Land, Water
Conflict Summary Large-scale mining activities by the Canadian Pueblo Viejo Dominicana Corporation (PVDC) have induced strong protests amongst local and national stakeholders...
Pueblo Viejo Mining Conflict in Dominican Republic
Large-scale mining activities by the Canadian Pueblo Viejo Dominicana Corporation (PVDC) have induced strong protests amongst local and national stakeholders in the Dominican Republic. Protests have been catalyzed by the large scope of the project and due to potential impacts upon health, the local environment, especially the pollution of rivers and land, as well as threats to the livelihoods of local communities. Moreover, serious labour conflicts with employees exist and a perception remains amongst local communities that economic benefits have been renegotiated at a governmental level.
Conceptual Model

Intermediary Mechanisms

The large-scale operations led to competition over land between affected communities and mining companies, resulting in land dispossessions. The polluted environment has caused health problems for farmers, locals and mine workers. Additionally, agricultural production has been affected by air contamination linked to the mining activities. Local rural communities are thus facing a threat to their livelihoods.

Fragility and Conflict Risks

When mining activities started, health dangers due to high toxic traces in the water and the loss of arable land sparked major violent protests against the authorities in charge. Dispossessed community members also bemoaned the lack of government protection. On another level, interfamily, as well as intra-communal, conflicts emerged between those employed by PVDC and those opposing the project.

Climate ChangeEnvironmental ChangeIntermediary MechanismsFragility and Conflict RisksSocial and Economic DriversEconomic developments lead to changes in land use.Economic activity causes pollution.Infrastructure development changes the allocation of water.Water scarcity undermines water-dependent livelihoods.Changes in land use lead to migration/displacements.Land scarcity undermines the livelihoods of agricultural producers.Pollution reduces available/usable land.Pollution creates public health risks.Pollution reduces available/usable freshwater.Migration leads to conflicts between migrants and residents.Problems related to migration/displacements lead to growing discontent with the state.Livelihood insecurity fuels grievances between groups.Public health risks cause growing discontent with the state.A broad concept to cover economic growth in general but also specific economic changes or changes of incentives.Economic DevelopmentA change in the usage of environmentally relevant land.Land Use ChangePollution and degradation of ecosystems, such as coral reefs.Pollution / Environmental DegradationConstruction of major infrastructure, such as dams, canals or roads.Infrastructure DevelopmentAn increase in the scarcity of clean water and/or an increased variability in water supply.Increased Water ScarcityA threat or destruction of livelihoods dependent on the availability of environmental resources / goods.Livelihood Insecurity(In)voluntary long and short-term movements of people within or across state boundaries.Displacements / MigrationReduced availability of/ access to land.Increased Land ScarcityRisks to the health of the population.Public Health RisksNon-violent or violent tensions and conflicts between different societal groups.Grievances between Societal GroupsChallenge to the state's legitimacy, ranging from peaceful protest to violent attempts at overthrowing the government.Anti-State Grievances
Context Factors
  • Unresponsive Government
Conflict History

In 2001, Placer Dome Inc. assimilated into Barrick Gold and acquired the rights to exploit the Pueblo Viejo mine following an international tender organized by the Dominican government (OCMAL, 2010). In 2006, two Canadian companies, Barrick Gold and Goldcorp Inc.,created the joint venture Pueblo Viejo Dominicana Corporation (PVDC) and acquired the mine located in Cotuí in the province of Sánchez Ramírez, roughly 100 km north of Santo Domingo. It was formerly operated by the Dominican mining group Rosario Dominicana, S. A., which had exploited Pueblo Viejo from 1975 to 1999 when it went bankrupt (Mi Mundo, 2012). The region is both rich in extractives such as gold, silver, iron, bauxite, marble and nickel mines, and its rich soils enables good yields and quality of the agricultural production. Therefore, this has become a very contested area. Apart from the conflict with the affected communities, there has also been a dispute between the Dominican Government and Barrick Gold over the economic benefits derived from the mine.

The legacy of the mine
The PVDC gold production began in 2012. This 3.8 billion USD open pit mine is anticipated to have a life of more than 25 years, becoming Barrick’s largest operation in the world (Kosich, 2013). It was ratified by the Dominican Congress, becoming the largest amount of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the country (EJOLT, 2014). Both the government and the company vowed to include a clean-up of Rosario’s toxic mess and implement systems to ensure clean local watercourses before granting mining concessions. Another contract establishes that the Dominican government accounts for the environmental remediation of the preceding mining activity (OCMAL, 2010). However, without carrying out the clean-up procedures to the promised extent, a new exploitation license was issued in 2003 for Pueblo Viejo (Mi Mundo, 2012). According to the company, waters that have a direct connection to the Barrick site have since been cleaned up. However, to date, evidence has not been provided (EJOLT, 2014).

A wide array of grievances
There has been strong opposition to the new project since its conception, which eventually turned into major violent protests of inhabitants and local stakeholders. Major concerns comprise, primarily, a lack of prior consultation of local stakeholders, feared and implemented land dispossession, detrimental effects on health and agricultural production, water contamination, working conditions and preservation of local environmental heritage. Previous mining activities had already inflicted severe environmental, social and financial damage upon the region. At least four rivers of the area were polluted with acid mine drainage and discharges from the tailings of the dams, which constitute an imminent danger for the entire surrounding region as the rivers are prone to inundations (OCMAL, 2010).

Current environmental ramifications and jeopardies
The Pueblo Viejo mine generates approximately 6,736 million cubic meters of waste water annually containing highly acidic elements and significant traces of heavy metals. Furthermore, studies have identified that contamination from this runoff presents a significant risk to the local water supply (MICLA, 2014). PVDC’s mining activities considerably increase the contamination of the 210 km-long river Yuna which provides the fertile eastern Cibao Valley with freshwater. The high precipitation pattern during rainy season in the region worsens the situation by dispersing contaminated water and wastes, and putting stress on local dams. In May 2011, thousands of people were relocated out of fear of inundation (OCMAL, 2014). Reportedly, other previously clean local rivers have become polluted or dried up since the company built a dam especially designed to collect water for their extracting purposes (The Economist, 2012). Moreover, the Pueblo Viejo project is situated in the immediate proximity of the Hatillo Dam – which is equally one of the country’s most important freshwater sources and provides irrigation to the Cibao’s agricultural products for national consumption and export. A collapse of its toxic storage tailings pond would contaminate the island’s largest freshwater reservoirs. Upon a freedom of information request posed by the civil society, the Ministry for the Environment publicly released tests that confirmed that the water in the Margajita River, downstream from the mine, contains toxic traces above the legal limits (Mi Mundo, 2012).

Health issues and other grievances
There have been numerous reports on intoxications and health problems of farmers and locals, and significant damage to agricultural products including cattle death caused by particulate material in the air emanating from the mining activities (OCMAL, 2010). This pollution has affected community members as well as mine workers. In 2012, over 100 employees were poisoned from exposure to toxic chemicals (MICLA, 2014). Another serious threat for local residents of Pueblo Viejo’s adjacent communities - particularly La Cerca – is the imminent risk of losing their territories and being forced out by the encroaching mining project. In 2008, families were evicted from their original lands or communities (Mi Mundo, 2012).

Furthermore, serious interfamily, as well as intra-communal, conflicts emerged between those employed by PVDC or affiliated businesses and those opposing the project at a communal level (Mi Mundo, 2012). Moreover, one of the affected municipalities, Bayaguana, issued a request against the free use of municipal property for the installation of electric towers. The companies, however, responded by recusing to an administrative court procedure to avoid paying taxes (Chavez, 2014).

Lack of government protection
According to reports, locals have bemoaned that they have been forced, or in some cases lured, to sell their land at low prices to the government, while the latter then resold the same land to Barrick at a much higher price. New jobs were not created, and productive land was not provided in exchange as promised. Instead, local community members felt coerced into approving the project and many hold the belief that local officials were bribed.



Resolution Efforts

Present conflict status
Currently, about 70 dispossessed families’ have demanded compensation from Barrick Gold and the Dominican government and there have been frequent protests staged (Tejeda, 2014). In 2014, residents of six communities located in the immediate proximity of the mine demonstrated against the uncertain health impacts of both soil and air pollution (MICLA, 2014). Residents of the affected area are suing PVDC for poisoning rivers, causing illnesses and the death of farm animals. There is no sign of a decline in the conflict scale and intensity as the detrimental impacts on the region persist (OCMAL, 2014). Between the Dominican Government and Barrick Gold, on the other hand, a dispute over economic benefits was solved.

Insufficient response to alleviate grievances
Despite tests conducted downstream of the mine by the Dominican Ministry of Environment showing that the water in the Margajita River was heavily polluted, the government has made little effort to act on these results. PVDC claims that it has signed the international code of practice for the handling of cyanide and that it treats all sewage output, as well as conducting regular public tests on water/air with local people (MICLA, 2014). However, local communities claim to have no knowledge of such tests and no data has so far been publicly provided (Mi Mundo, 2012). Several local farmers and community leaders have requested the government to be relocated to safe regions which are agriculturally productive. However, these requests have not been met so far (OCMAL, 2014).

The deputy Carlos Gabriel García initiated a conflict resolution project that seeks to revise the agreement with the government and the state, including the consideration of its unjust impact on the national interest (Chavez, 2014).

There is no significant alleviation, neither to the conflicts surrounding land dispossessions, nor concerning the environmental degradation that affects livelihoods and poses other serious threats to health and communal peace (Tejeda, 2014).

Intensities & Influences
conflict intensity scale
International / Geopolitical Intensity
Human Suffering

Environmental Influences
Societal Influences

Manifest Crisis
Diplomatic Crisis No diplomatic crisis
Violent Conflict Yes
Salience within nation National
Mass Displacement Less than 100.000 and less than 10% of the country's population are displaced within the country.
Cross Border Mass Displacement No
Biodiversity, Air (Pollution), Agricultural / Pastoral Land, Water
Resolution Success
Resolve of displacement problems Displacement continues to cause discontent and/or other problems.
Reduction in geographical scope There has been no reduction in geographical scope.
Increased capacity to address grievance in the future There is no increased capacity to address grievances in the future.
Grievance Resolution Grievances have been completely ignored.
Causal Attribution of Decrease in Conflict Intensity There has been no reduction in intensity
General opencollapse
Country Data in Comparison
ConflictNoData Created with Sketch.
Fault Lines Defining Conflict Parties
Purely Environmental | Cultural   ♦   Occupational   ♦   Economic   ♦   Urban / Rural   ♦   National / International conflict   ♦   Sub-national political

Participation Conflict Party     Conflict Resolution Facilitator
Dominican Government
Functional GroupPublic
Geographical ScaleInternal National
Local Stakeholders
Functional GroupCivil Society
Geographical ScaleInternal Grassroots
Mining corporation Barrick Gold
Functional GroupCommercial
Geographical ScaleExternal
Pueblo Viejo Dominicana Corporation (PVDC)
Functional GroupCommercial
Geographical ScaleExternal
Local Authorities
Functional GroupCivil Society
Geographical ScaleInternal Grassroots
Entry Points for Resilience and Peace Building
0 Compensation Dispossessed and affected communities have staged frequent protests demanding compensation from Barrick Gold and the government, and are suing PVDC for the mines’ role in water and air pollution, as well as the resulting health ramifications. Local farmers and community leaders have also requested to be relocated to safe and agriculturally productive regions. However, the government has not yet complied.
1 Environmental restoration & protection The Dominican Ministry of Environment conducted tests that indicated heavy pollution of the Margajita River located downstream of the mine. However, little effort has been made by the government to act on these results. On the other hand, the Pueblo Viejo Dominicana Corporation (PVDC) has claimed to treat all sewage output from the mine, but no evidence has been publicly provided to date.
Further Details opencollapse
Conflict Characterization
Character of the contested good Public good: No one can be excluded from use and the good is not depleted.
Broad conflict characterization Resource capture is not present.
Ecological marginalization is not present.
Data of involved Countries
Resources and Materials opencollapse


Adaptation & Resilience

All countries will need to adapt to some of the environmental, social and economic impacts of climate change that are already unavoidable. Food security, livelihoods, water resource availability and public health are some affected areas. People living in poverty are more vulnerable, having a lower capacity to adapt. Thus, it is essential to promote resilience building. The adaptation and resilience aspects need to be mainstreamed into planning by policy makers and the private sector as well as integrated into development strategies.

Biodiversity & Livelihoods

Nature protection is most sustainable if it essentially contributes to the long-term stability of human needs. Today many regions around the world are confronted with increasing destruction of the natural foundations of life. The consequences of wide-ranging resource destruction are no longer regionally limited, but rather represent a global threat. Those affected are mainly rural populations, who find the sources of their income and the foundations of their way of life swept away. The depletion and destruction of natural resources goes hand in hand with decreasing agricultural yields and increasing poverty, which in turn forces the affected populations to deplete the remaining resources.

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Capacity Building

On the one hand, conflicts are caused by structural factors, such as economic and social inequality or environmental destruction. On the other hand, conflicts are fuelled by a lack of democratic structures, deficient mechanisms of non-violent conflict settlement, inadequate rule of law, the destruction of social and cultural identity and the disregard of human rights. Against this backdrop, development policies have been dedicated to a broad concept of security, which comprises political, economic, ecological and social stability. As a consequence, development cooperation agencies and actors have developed a broad spectrum of approaches for conflict prevention and transformation as well as for sustainable use of natural resources.

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Civil Society

Civil society is the first victim of environmental pollution, under-development and conflicts. Economically disadvantaged and politically marginalized population groups are particularly affected by violent conflicts as well as increasing resource degradation. Simultaneously, civil society is a fundamental pillar for implementing sustainable development. It contributes in many ways to strengthening conflict prevention and plays a significant role in the peaceful and democratic development of states. It must be supported to strengthen civil rights, adherence to human rights in general and democratic participation.

Climate Change

Climate change resulting from the emission of greenhouse gases represents one of the vital challenges for international environmental policy. Flooding, droughts, shifting of climate zones and increasingly frequent and intense extreme weather events will have serious economic and social consequences for entire regions. The climate problem is also directly linked to the question of future energy generation.

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Climate Diplomacy

To address the challenges posed by climate change, a new profile of climate diplomacy is evolving. This utilises a full range of policies, including development cooperation, conflict prevention efforts, and humanitarian assistance, in addition to more traditional measures of climate change adaptation and mitigation. Moving from a risk analysis of climate-related threats to well-timed preventive action requires a greater commitment to integrating climate change concerns into development, foreign, and security policies. Examples include strengthening diplomatic networks, building new alliances with partners, and raising awareness – not only of potentially negative climate change impacts, but also of opportunities to embark on a sustainable transformation of our societies.

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Climate action entails an array of economic, social, political and environmental co-benefits. It provides an opportunity for economic growth and new jobs. Many investments can take into account climate considerations without becoming more costly. Further important co-benefits include: improved energy security, less local air and water pollution, health benefits as well as ecosystem and biodiversity protection.

Conflict Transformation

In order to overcome the structural causes of violent conflicts and thus bring about an improvement in the framework conditions for peaceful and fair development, it is essential to have long term and broadly planned peace development and peace advancement. Various governmental and non-governmental, national and international actors and groups are involved in these processes.

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Climate change and development are inextricably linked. Climate change endangers the development agenda and has the potential to reverse development goals. Furthermore, successful mitigation of climate change heavily depends on development choices around the world. Therefore, development strategies need to be climate-compatible to provide long-term success, and there are viable policy options that support this compatibility. Many mitigation and adaptation activities can present development opportunities to developing countries and avoid the lock-in to environmentally damaging technologies.

Early Warning & Risk Analysis

The reasons for the development and escalation of conflicts and the incidence of risks are multifaceted and complex. Simultaneously, the assessment of the specific causes in the form of risk and conflict analyses can contribute to a better understanding of these processes and make it possible to provide warning of negative developments, or ideally help prevent them. In the context of natural resource use, risks and conflicts have gained increasing attention in the past years. The debate on possible future water wars is merely one example.

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The well-being of individuals, communities and nations depends on the availability of energy resources. The gap between energy supply and demand appears to be growing, making the world vulnerable to serious economic shocks. At the same time, the burning of fossil fuels causing climate change is one of the vital challenges of international environmental policy. So far, only rudimentary approaches exist for shaping climate and energy security in a sustainable way. The components of a strategy that can contribute to reducing vulnerabilities related to climate change and energy policy include a greater role for renewable energies, the improvement of energy efficiency and a stronger decentralisation of energy supply.

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Environment & Migration

The economic, social and environmental consequences of climate change aggravate the breakdown of eco-system-dependent livelihoods and are likely to become dominant drivers of long-term migration. Natural disasters already cause massive shorter-term displacement and the number of temporarily displaced people is likely to further increase with climate change. For vulnerable populations in vulnerable regions, such as the Sahel zone or the Ganges delta, migration often becomes the sole survival strategy. In order to address climate-related displacement and migration successfully, knowledge of effective adaptation and an improved understanding of how environmental change affects human mobility is essential. 

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Climate finance, from all sources, plays a key role in supporting and enabling adaptation and mitigation action as well as climate and energy innovation. The Paris Agreement ensured that the Green Climate Fund and the Global Environment Facility are at the core of climate finance architecture as entities entrusted with the operation of the Financial Mechanism of the UNFCCC. Increasing climate finance from all relevant public and private sources is crucial. Furthermore, much needs to be done to redirect finance flows to sustainable paths, e.g. reducing fossil fuel subsidies, introducing maritime and air transportation taxes. The conditions for green investment in developing countries should also be improved.


Forests are disappearing at an alarming rate. Competition for forest resources triggers, exacerbates, or finances numerous crises and conflicts in tropical developing countries. Illegal logging and timber trade foster instability and sometimes violent conflict by strengthening illegal and armed groups, increasing corruption and exacerbating use and claim conflicts among local communities, the state and the business sector. Forests are a vital resource to poor people but they can also become areas of conflict. Sustainable management of forest resources is therefore key to preventing violent conflict over and within forests.

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Gender plays an important role as a category of conflict for many reasons. The interlinkages between gender, environment and conflicts are complex and much research is still needed. Existing insights suggest that conflicts may worsen gender inequalities that existed before the outbreak of violence. The unequal distribution of land property rights in many parts of the world serves as an example. Moreover, women (and children) are among those most affected by both violent conflict and natural disasters. At the same time, women carry much of the burden of trying to implement rehabilitation measures after crisis events.

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Land & Food

Increasing water scarcity, desertification and crop failures due to extreme weather events are becoming more and more of a threat to global food production. While the world’s population continues to grow rapidly, food production is unable to keep pace. Due to the global food crisis in 2008, the number of hungry people reached the symbolic one billion threshold for the first time – corresponding to about 16 percent of world population. Food insecurity may be a consequence or cause of conflicts. Violent conflicts often lead to the destruction of agricultural infrastructure and means of production, as well as to the displacement of local communities.

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Minerals & Mining

In the past, the discovery and tapping of valuable or strategic resources like valuable minerals, oil and natural gas, particularly in developing and emerging countries, has often led to large scale environmental contamination and negative development. The "resource curse" of some countries shows that the wealth from resource yields is frequently unfairly distributed; instead of serving development it advanced the formation of corrupt elites and in some cases even led to conflicts and civil wars. Measures in various sectors and at all levels are important in order to use the potential of these natural resources in a manner that is sustainable and prevents conflicts.

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Private Sector

The spread of violent conflict not only affects people but also companies located in such regions. Destruction of investments and infrastructure, collapse of markets and trade partnerships, flight and expulsion of employees are phenomena of conflicts and environment-induced crises that directly affect companies in unstable regions. Almost all branches of the economy thus have a clear interest in a stable and peaceful environment for their activities. Conversely, the business sector plays an important role in the interaction of economic growth, social development and a healthy environment, all of which can advance peace and sustainable development. 

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Environmental issues have a significant security dimension. Access to, and overuse of, natural resources often play a key role in civil wars or other forms of internal domestic conflict. This is compounded by climate change and environmental degradation. Climate change is now widely recognised as a non-traditional, risk-multiplying threat that will have increasing security impacts. Key risks with possible implications for human and national security include water scarcity, food crises, natural disasters, and displacement. More preventive diplomacy and advocacy is needed to address the strategic implications of climate and environmental change.

Sustainable Transformation

Sustainable Transformation allows societies to profit from a growing, environmentally sustainable and socially inclusive economy – especially in emerging and developing countries. This requires a higher up-front investment, but the benefits of a sustainable transformation in the medium and long term are significant. For instance, energy cost savings and reducing the impact of price volatility offer major incentives for deploying renewable energies and promoting energy efficiency. Such benefits exist in all key sectors of the economy.

Technology & Innovation

Innovations and technologies are already readily available and affordable but their global diffusion and uptake remains a challenge. Innovation and technology are crucial to achieving ambitious climate change mitigation and adaptation targets. However, research and development often do not receive appropriate public support. Developing countries can leapfrog high-carbon industrialisation phases by adopting, deploying and improving existing innovations and technologies. For this, it is essential to minimise financial, administrative and political barriers.


The availability of freshwater resources in sufficient quantity and quality is essential for the preservation of human health and sound ecosystems. The use of water resources is also vital, however, for economic development: whether for agriculture, industrial production or for electricity generation. The world's freshwater resources are distributed very unevenly in terms of geography and seasons. In addition, water shortage is becoming more prevalent in several regions due to population growth, economic development, urbanisation and increasing environmental pollution. Thus, water resources can hold potential for conflicts between parties who have different interests and needs.

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The environment in Asia is already under tremendous pressure as a result of the unsustainable use of land, forests, water and even air in many regions. Climate change will only exacerbate these challenges. Rising sea levels will likely endanger densely populated areas, changes in the monsoon patterns can strongly impact agriculture, melting glaciers will increase long-term water scarcity, and extreme weather events such as heavy rainfall and cyclones can pose further hazards.

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Central America & Caribbean

Natural disasters and water scarcity are key challenges for most of Central America and the Caribbean. These challenges will become even more pronounced as the climate changes. Weak resource and disaster risk management and land disputes pose additional security challenges for large parts of the region. Several countries of Central America and the Caribbean have limited adaptive capacities as they face political instability caused by high social inequality, crime, corruption, and intra-state conflicts.

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As one of the most developed and most densely populated regions in the world, Europe makes heavy use of its resources, resulting in difficult trade-offs and negative consequences for the environment and ecosystems. Land is used for settlements, agriculture and dense infrastructure, creating problems of soil degradation. Water resources are stressed due to unsustainable agricultural practices. Despite nature protection policies, Europe continues to lose biodiversity at an alarming pace. Some of these trends are exacerbated by climate change, which is expected, for instance, to lead to shifts in water availability.

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Global Issues

Resource scarcities, environmental pollution and climate change are not limited by national borders, but often have a transboundary or even global impact. These issues interact with political stability, governance structures and economic performance, and can trigger or worsen disputes and violent conflicts. Exacerbating some of these trends, climate change is likely to lead to the degradation of freshwater resources, declines in food production, increases in storm and flood disasters and environmentally induced migration. All these developments pose potential for conflict.

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Middle East & North Africa

The geopolitical position of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), its fossil fuel resources, high population growth and the political changes spurred by the Arab Spring all make the region one of the most dynamic in the world. Nevertheless, it is also one of the most arid and environmentally stressed. Dwindling water resources, limited arable and grazing land, high pollution from household and industrial waste, remnants of conflicts and increasing desertification are key environmental challenges.

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North America

Climate change has various impacts on the three North American countries of Canada, Mexico and the US. Canada and the US have well-developed adaptive capacities and foster the strengthening of capacities in other regions as well. With high per capita emissions, these two countries also bear a greater responsibility for a changing climate. Mexico has a sound national strategy for climate change adaptation, yet fewer capacities than Canada and the US. The poorer and rural populations of Mexico are especially vulnerable to climate change, due to an increased sensitivity and a lower adaptive capacity.

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Oceania & Pacific

In Oceania, population growth and economic development trends put a strain on oceanic and island ecosystems. Freshwater scarcity, overexploitation of fisheries, loss of land biodiversity, forests and trees, invasive species, soil degradation, increasing levels of settlement, poor management of solid and hazardous waste and disproportionate use of coastal areas are some of the problems. Climate change exacerbates most of these trends, while also raising questions about the future sovereignty of some island states.

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South America

South America has diverse and unique ecosystems and is very rich in biodiversity. Weak natural resource management, land disputes and extreme weather events bring about significant challenges for the region. While South America accounts for relatively few CO2 emissions, the changing climate will alter its ecosystems and greater climate variability will lead to more hurricanes, landslides, and droughts.

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Sub-Saharan Africa

In many African states, environmental security issues rank high on the political agenda. Throughout the continent, countries suffer from water scarcity, food insecurity and energy poverty. These chronic and worsening resource scarcities have severe livelihood implications and are exacerbated by political conflicts over access to and control over these resources. Climate change may seriously threaten political and economic stability in Africa. It may also put a severe strain on the capacities of states and societies to co-ordinate activities, to communicate and to organize.

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