ECC Platform Library


Mining Conflict in Madagascar

Type of conflict main
Intensity 1.5
Eastern Africa
Time 2013 ‐ ongoing
Countries Madagascar
Resources Fish, Agricultural / Pastoral Land, Water, Forests, Ecosystem Stability
Conflict Summary Grievances among local people over the Quebec Iron and Titanium Madagascar Minerals (QMM) company in Madagascar led to major public protests, which resulted...
Mining Conflict in Madagascar
Grievances among local people over the Quebec Iron and Titanium Madagascar Minerals (QMM) company in Madagascar led to major public protests, which resulted in a military response by the government.
Conceptual Model

Intermediary Mechanisms

The Quebec Iron and Titanium Madagascar Minerals (QMM) is one of two major foreign capital investors in Madagascar. The company conducts large-scale mineral sand operations since 2009. Dredge mining operations cover an area of 6000 ha, and QMM’s facilities include a mine, floating plants and port facilities. Furthermore, a dam was constructed at Lake Ambavarano, which is an important fresh water source.

Fragility and Conflict Risks

The Quebec Iron and Titanium Madagascar Minerals (QMM) is one of two major foreign capital investors in Madagascar. The company conducts large-scale mineral sand operations since 2009. Dredge mining operations cover an area of 6000 ha, and QMM’s facilities include a mine, floating plants and port facilities. Furthermore, a dam was constructed at Lake Ambavarano, which is an important fresh water source.

Climate ChangeEnvironmental ChangeIntermediary MechanismsFragility and Conflict RisksSocial and Economic DriversEconomic developments lead to changes in land use.Economic activity causes pollution.Infrastructure development reduces available natural resources.Changes in land use reduce available/usable natural resources.Pollution / Environmental degradation reduces available/usable natural resources.Reduced availability of/access to natural resources undermines resource-dependent livelihoods.Livelihood insecurity leads to growing discontent with the state.A broad concept to cover economic growth in general but also specific economic changes or changes of incentives.Economic DevelopmentA change in the usage of environmentally relevant land.Land Use ChangePollution and degradation of ecosystems, such as coral reefs.Pollution / Environmental DegradationConstruction of major infrastructure, such as dams, canals or roads.Infrastructure DevelopmentGrowing scarcity of essential natural resources.Natural Resource ScarcityA threat or destruction of livelihoods dependent on the availability of environmental resources / goods.Livelihood InsecurityChallenge to the state's legitimacy, ranging from peaceful protest to violent attempts at overthrowing the government.Anti-State Grievances
Context Factors
  • Lack of Alternative Livelihoods
  • Low Level of Economic Development
  • Unresponsive Government
Conflict History

Quebec Iron and Titanium Madagascar Minerals (QMM) is a company conducting a large-scale mineral sands operation in Taolagnaro, Southeast Madagascar. With a lifespan of 50 years, it has been producing ilmenite, rutile and zircon since 2009 having started exploration in the late 1980s. The operation valued at US$930 million is one of two major foreign capital investments in the country with 80% ownership by Anglo-Australian mining giant RioTinto and 20% by the government of Madagascar. The site comprises a mine, separation floating plant and port facilities.

Public Protest: 2013 and 2009
In January 9-12, 2013, Taolagnaro witnessed a major public protest involving road blockage and trapping of about 200 QMM workers including QMM’s chief executive (Douguet, 2013). As the company threatened to close the mine and even exit Madagascar, a military response accompanied by firing of tear gas dispensed protesters and rescued the trapped miners on January 12, 2013 (The Telegraph, 2013). This followed previous protests such as in 2009 when protesters used road-blocks to prevent QMM vehicles from entering the Mandena processing plant (Seagle, 2013). The main causes of the protests were issues related to fishing ground and land acquisition and employment at the mine. Although the climax of the conflict was reached during those three days, historical grievances since the acquisition of the concession underpin that culmination. 

Ecological impacts
The QMM project involves dredge mining covering an area of 6,000ha, of which 2000ha (the Mandena site) is currently mined with 498 persons already displaced to allow for construction of a new port, roads, quarrying, and housing for mine workers (Rio Tinto/QMM, 2011). Affected people are mostly subsistence farmers with coastal communities relying on fishing. Grievances in relation to QMM’s impact on ecosystem emanate from land acquisition and clearing of forests. The project coincides with ecosystems as diverse as coastal forest, freshwater, swamps, estuarine and marine environments.

QMM’s planned clearance amounts to 80% of the Southeastern littoral forest (Watson et al, 2010). The unique habitat and biodiversity has been significantly degraded with the decline in forest cover becoming one of the most acute threats to the ecosystem (Harper et al, 2008; Myers et al, 2000). This has been the subject of public discontent although the company claims that forest degradation has already been inflicted by local people. There is a direct livelihood dependency and significant benefits from ecological tourism; and so any change to the ecosystem is considered a change to living conditions.

Affected people were not only disgruntled by the loss of their prized asset (the ecosystem), but also felt either under-compensated or overlooked in the process of beneficiation. Displaced people have been discontent as compensation did not match the value of the loss in cultivable and sacred land. Compensation amount ranged from 100 to 400 MGA (Malagasy Ariary - the local currency)/square metre while World Bank guidelines are close to 2,000 MGA/square metre of land (Andrew Lees Trust, 2009). Grievances related to undervaluation of mining land and the subsequent receipt of inadequate compensation were taken to court by locals, a case that was dismissed by the court six months prior to the protest (The Telegraph, 2013). This ruling has only escalated the dispute as people felt hard done by the lack of support from public authorities who have interest in the mine through the 20% share.

Impacts upon fishing industries
Those who rely on fishing have either seen their fishing stock reduced or denied access to fishing sites due to dam construction by the company (Seagle, 2013). The dam was constructed at the mouth of a River leading from Lake Ambavarano to the coast to supply fresh water for dredge mining and is considered by local fishermen as the main cause of reduced catch (Seagle, 2012). Fishing is one of the main activities in the area providing food security, job opportunity and income; and people fear of continued impact given the enormous amount of water ilmenite mining requires and the polluting effect on water sources. An assessment made by Friends of the Earth (2011) also emphasized impacts of the dam on reduction of tourism and transport obstruction.

The loss in cultivable land and fishing resources has been compounded by the lack of employment opportunities for locals. Many locals and in particular the youth have shown their disappointments at the limited employment opportunities and the hiring of many workers from other regions or even other countries (Harbinson, 2007). Local communities had high expectations in terms of employment and other benefits; however, a lack of transparency has left them with a sense of broken promises relative to their high expectations. Affected people lack advance knowledge and communication about the project depriving them from important information regarding the benefits and negative impacts of QMM operations. The resulting changes have created mistrust and social conflict.

Resolution Efforts

Given the strong connection between local livelihood and the environment especially cultivable land, forests and water resources and the water-intensive nature of the mine which requires massive land, conflict becomes a serious phenomenon that requires proactive mitigation planning. Most of the mitigation measures have been reactionary such as the use of military and police forces to respond to protests and threatening to suspend mining or altogether leave. Mitigation measures by QMM went further to address impact on livelihoods through provision of various forms of compensation such as technical and financial assistance for social and community development and an improved HR policy such as strengthening local capacities to prioritise local labour (Rio Tinto/QMM, 2009). Another measure to mitigate conflict involved a communication campaign funded by QMM and conducted by an NGO called Search for Common Ground to improve the relationship between negotiating parties and develop negotiation, conflict resolution and constructive communication capacity of stakeholders.

QMM environmental measures
As part of its environmental plan which responds to the Environmental Charter of 2004, QMM has set up environmental measures with the creation of conservation zone a priority. One major activity to rectify the environmental damage was a QMM program of planting fast-growing species in the areas where minerals have been exploited (Temple et al, 2012). While this program started two years prior to the major protest mentioned above and has been widespread, people in the area are far more concerned about the loss of their livelihood sources which affected agriculture and fishery. In particular, the impact on water supply which the mining operation requires throughout the mining cycle causing changes in flow and drainage patterns, siltation from increased sediment load of discharged process water, water table drawdown, erosion and impacts on aquatic life (Hoagland, 2013). As such, general discontent about QMM project is likely to continue until a durable solution is implemented addressing these major livelihood impacts.

Minimization of future conflict
Future conflict might be at least minimized when a mechanism is put in place to ensure appropriate water management practice, compensation is carried out to not only cover temporary loss but also as an implementation tool for a long-term plan to provide sustainable livelihood. But all these can only be done through proactive and ongoing dialogue with the affected people, which is a realistic approach to avoid conflict. Due to insufficient open and balanced dialogue between QMM and local stakeholders, there is a lack of awareness of the social and environmental risks and balanced view of benefits (Harbinson, 2007).Therefore, affected communities need to be partners in decisions that affect them and consulted on a regular basis to raise their awareness about the actual risks and benefits and identify best mechanisms for conflict resolution, compromise, or mitigating negative impacts.

Intensities & Influences
conflict intensity scale
International / Geopolitical Intensity
Human Suffering

Environmental Influences
Societal Influences

Violent Conflict Yes
Salience within nation National
Mass Displacement None
Cross Border Mass Displacement No
Fish, Agricultural / Pastoral Land, Water, Forests, Ecosystem Stability
Resolution Success
Reduction in Violence Violence has ceded completely.
Reduction in geographical scope There has been no reduction in geographical scope.
Increased capacity to address grievance in the future The capacity to address grievances in the future has increased.
Grievance Resolution Grievances have been mostly ignored.
Causal Attribution of Decrease in Conflict Intensity There has been no reduction in intensity
General opencollapse
Country Data in Comparison
ConflictNoData Created with Sketch.
Fault Lines Defining Conflict Parties
Purely Environmental | Cultural   ♦   Occupational   ♦   Economic   ♦   Urban / Rural   ♦   National / International conflict   ♦   Sub-national political

Participation Conflict Party     Conflict Resolution Facilitator
Quebec Iron and Titanium Madagascar Minerals (QMM)
Functional GroupCivil Society
Geographical ScaleInternal National
Madagascar Government
Functional GroupCivil Society
Geographical ScaleInternal National
Local people
Functional GroupCivil Society
Geographical ScaleInternal Grassroots
Search for Common Ground
Functional GroupCivil Society
Geographical ScaleInternal Grassroots
Entry Points for Resilience and Peace Building
1 Dialogue A communication campaign funded by QMM and conducted by an NGO called Search for Common Ground aims to improve the relationship between conflict parties and develop negotiation, conflict resolution and constructive communication capacities of stakeholders.
2 Compensation The Quebec Iron and Titanium Madagascar Minerals (QMM) Company has provided various forms of compensation such as technical and financial assistance for social and community development, and an improved human resources policy that strengthens local capacities to prioritise local labour. This has gone further to address the impact on livelihoods given that most of the mitigation measures so far have been reactionary, such as the use of military and police forces to respond to protests, and threats of suspend mining.
2 Environmental restoration & protection QMM has created a conservation zone as part of its environmental plan.
Further Details opencollapse
Conflict Characterization
Structure of decision-making power / interdependence Asymmetric: The power to affect the environmental resource is unequal.
Broad conflict characterization Resource capture is not present.
Ecological marginalization is not present.
Data of involved Countries
Resources and Materials opencollapse
References with URL
References without URL
Harbinson, R. (2007). A mine of information? Improving communication around the Rio Tinto ilmenite mine in Madagascar.
Harper, G. J. et al. (2007). Fifty years of deforestation and forest fragmentation ...Environmental Conservation, 34(04)
Hoagland, N. E. (2013, December). Assessing water management of mining effluent... AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts (Vol. 1)
Myers, N. et al. (2000). Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature, 403(6772), 853-858.
Seagle, C. (2012). Inverting the impacts...Journal of Peasant Studies, 39(2), 447-477.
Seagle, C. (2013). Discourse, development and legitimacy...Contest for Land in Madagascar: 187
Temple, H.J., et al (2012). Forecasting the path towards a Net Positive Impact on biodiversity for Rio Tinto QMM. IUCN
Watson, J. E., et al (2010). Mining and conservation: Implications for...Conservation Letters, 3(4), 286-287.


Adaptation & Resilience

All countries will need to adapt to some of the environmental, social and economic impacts of climate change that are already unavoidable. Food security, livelihoods, water resource availability and public health are some affected areas. People living in poverty are more vulnerable, having a lower capacity to adapt. Thus, it is essential to promote resilience building. The adaptation and resilience aspects need to be mainstreamed into planning by policy makers and the private sector as well as integrated into development strategies.

Biodiversity & Livelihoods

Nature protection is most sustainable if it essentially contributes to the long-term stability of human needs. Today many regions around the world are confronted with increasing destruction of the natural foundations of life. The consequences of wide-ranging resource destruction are no longer regionally limited, but rather represent a global threat. Those affected are mainly rural populations, who find the sources of their income and the foundations of their way of life swept away. The depletion and destruction of natural resources goes hand in hand with decreasing agricultural yields and increasing poverty, which in turn forces the affected populations to deplete the remaining resources.

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Capacity Building

On the one hand, conflicts are caused by structural factors, such as economic and social inequality or environmental destruction. On the other hand, conflicts are fuelled by a lack of democratic structures, deficient mechanisms of non-violent conflict settlement, inadequate rule of law, the destruction of social and cultural identity and the disregard of human rights. Against this backdrop, development policies have been dedicated to a broad concept of security, which comprises political, economic, ecological and social stability. As a consequence, development cooperation agencies and actors have developed a broad spectrum of approaches for conflict prevention and transformation as well as for sustainable use of natural resources.

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Civil Society

Civil society is the first victim of environmental pollution, under-development and conflicts. Economically disadvantaged and politically marginalized population groups are particularly affected by violent conflicts as well as increasing resource degradation. Simultaneously, civil society is a fundamental pillar for implementing sustainable development. It contributes in many ways to strengthening conflict prevention and plays a significant role in the peaceful and democratic development of states. It must be supported to strengthen civil rights, adherence to human rights in general and democratic participation.

Climate Change

Climate change resulting from the emission of greenhouse gases represents one of the vital challenges for international environmental policy. Flooding, droughts, shifting of climate zones and increasingly frequent and intense extreme weather events will have serious economic and social consequences for entire regions. The climate problem is also directly linked to the question of future energy generation.

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Climate Diplomacy

To address the challenges posed by climate change, a new profile of climate diplomacy is evolving. This utilises a full range of policies, including development cooperation, conflict prevention efforts, and humanitarian assistance, in addition to more traditional measures of climate change adaptation and mitigation. Moving from a risk analysis of climate-related threats to well-timed preventive action requires a greater commitment to integrating climate change concerns into development, foreign, and security policies. Examples include strengthening diplomatic networks, building new alliances with partners, and raising awareness – not only of potentially negative climate change impacts, but also of opportunities to embark on a sustainable transformation of our societies.

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Climate action entails an array of economic, social, political and environmental co-benefits. It provides an opportunity for economic growth and new jobs. Many investments can take into account climate considerations without becoming more costly. Further important co-benefits include: improved energy security, less local air and water pollution, health benefits as well as ecosystem and biodiversity protection.

Conflict Transformation

In order to overcome the structural causes of violent conflicts and thus bring about an improvement in the framework conditions for peaceful and fair development, it is essential to have long term and broadly planned peace development and peace advancement. Various governmental and non-governmental, national and international actors and groups are involved in these processes.

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Climate change and development are inextricably linked. Climate change endangers the development agenda and has the potential to reverse development goals. Furthermore, successful mitigation of climate change heavily depends on development choices around the world. Therefore, development strategies need to be climate-compatible to provide long-term success, and there are viable policy options that support this compatibility. Many mitigation and adaptation activities can present development opportunities to developing countries and avoid the lock-in to environmentally damaging technologies.

Early Warning & Risk Analysis

The reasons for the development and escalation of conflicts and the incidence of risks are multifaceted and complex. Simultaneously, the assessment of the specific causes in the form of risk and conflict analyses can contribute to a better understanding of these processes and make it possible to provide warning of negative developments, or ideally help prevent them. In the context of natural resource use, risks and conflicts have gained increasing attention in the past years. The debate on possible future water wars is merely one example.

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The well-being of individuals, communities and nations depends on the availability of energy resources. The gap between energy supply and demand appears to be growing, making the world vulnerable to serious economic shocks. At the same time, the burning of fossil fuels causing climate change is one of the vital challenges of international environmental policy. So far, only rudimentary approaches exist for shaping climate and energy security in a sustainable way. The components of a strategy that can contribute to reducing vulnerabilities related to climate change and energy policy include a greater role for renewable energies, the improvement of energy efficiency and a stronger decentralisation of energy supply.

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Environment & Migration

The economic, social and environmental consequences of climate change aggravate the breakdown of eco-system-dependent livelihoods and are likely to become dominant drivers of long-term migration. Natural disasters already cause massive shorter-term displacement and the number of temporarily displaced people is likely to further increase with climate change. For vulnerable populations in vulnerable regions, such as the Sahel zone or the Ganges delta, migration often becomes the sole survival strategy. In order to address climate-related displacement and migration successfully, knowledge of effective adaptation and an improved understanding of how environmental change affects human mobility is essential. 

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Climate finance, from all sources, plays a key role in supporting and enabling adaptation and mitigation action as well as climate and energy innovation. The Paris Agreement ensured that the Green Climate Fund and the Global Environment Facility are at the core of climate finance architecture as entities entrusted with the operation of the Financial Mechanism of the UNFCCC. Increasing climate finance from all relevant public and private sources is crucial. Furthermore, much needs to be done to redirect finance flows to sustainable paths, e.g. reducing fossil fuel subsidies, introducing maritime and air transportation taxes. The conditions for green investment in developing countries should also be improved.


Forests are disappearing at an alarming rate. Competition for forest resources triggers, exacerbates, or finances numerous crises and conflicts in tropical developing countries. Illegal logging and timber trade foster instability and sometimes violent conflict by strengthening illegal and armed groups, increasing corruption and exacerbating use and claim conflicts among local communities, the state and the business sector. Forests are a vital resource to poor people but they can also become areas of conflict. Sustainable management of forest resources is therefore key to preventing violent conflict over and within forests.

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Gender plays an important role as a category of conflict for many reasons. The interlinkages between gender, environment and conflicts are complex and much research is still needed. Existing insights suggest that conflicts may worsen gender inequalities that existed before the outbreak of violence. The unequal distribution of land property rights in many parts of the world serves as an example. Moreover, women (and children) are among those most affected by both violent conflict and natural disasters. At the same time, women carry much of the burden of trying to implement rehabilitation measures after crisis events.

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Land & Food

Increasing water scarcity, desertification and crop failures due to extreme weather events are becoming more and more of a threat to global food production. While the world’s population continues to grow rapidly, food production is unable to keep pace. Due to the global food crisis in 2008, the number of hungry people reached the symbolic one billion threshold for the first time – corresponding to about 16 percent of world population. Food insecurity may be a consequence or cause of conflicts. Violent conflicts often lead to the destruction of agricultural infrastructure and means of production, as well as to the displacement of local communities.

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Minerals & Mining

In the past, the discovery and tapping of valuable or strategic resources like valuable minerals, oil and natural gas, particularly in developing and emerging countries, has often led to large scale environmental contamination and negative development. The "resource curse" of some countries shows that the wealth from resource yields is frequently unfairly distributed; instead of serving development it advanced the formation of corrupt elites and in some cases even led to conflicts and civil wars. Measures in various sectors and at all levels are important in order to use the potential of these natural resources in a manner that is sustainable and prevents conflicts.

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Private Sector

The spread of violent conflict not only affects people but also companies located in such regions. Destruction of investments and infrastructure, collapse of markets and trade partnerships, flight and expulsion of employees are phenomena of conflicts and environment-induced crises that directly affect companies in unstable regions. Almost all branches of the economy thus have a clear interest in a stable and peaceful environment for their activities. Conversely, the business sector plays an important role in the interaction of economic growth, social development and a healthy environment, all of which can advance peace and sustainable development. 

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Environmental issues have a significant security dimension. Access to, and overuse of, natural resources often play a key role in civil wars or other forms of internal domestic conflict. This is compounded by climate change and environmental degradation. Climate change is now widely recognised as a non-traditional, risk-multiplying threat that will have increasing security impacts. Key risks with possible implications for human and national security include water scarcity, food crises, natural disasters, and displacement. More preventive diplomacy and advocacy is needed to address the strategic implications of climate and environmental change.

Sustainable Transformation

Sustainable Transformation allows societies to profit from a growing, environmentally sustainable and socially inclusive economy – especially in emerging and developing countries. This requires a higher up-front investment, but the benefits of a sustainable transformation in the medium and long term are significant. For instance, energy cost savings and reducing the impact of price volatility offer major incentives for deploying renewable energies and promoting energy efficiency. Such benefits exist in all key sectors of the economy.

Technology & Innovation

Innovations and technologies are already readily available and affordable but their global diffusion and uptake remains a challenge. Innovation and technology are crucial to achieving ambitious climate change mitigation and adaptation targets. However, research and development often do not receive appropriate public support. Developing countries can leapfrog high-carbon industrialisation phases by adopting, deploying and improving existing innovations and technologies. For this, it is essential to minimise financial, administrative and political barriers.


The availability of freshwater resources in sufficient quantity and quality is essential for the preservation of human health and sound ecosystems. The use of water resources is also vital, however, for economic development: whether for agriculture, industrial production or for electricity generation. The world's freshwater resources are distributed very unevenly in terms of geography and seasons. In addition, water shortage is becoming more prevalent in several regions due to population growth, economic development, urbanisation and increasing environmental pollution. Thus, water resources can hold potential for conflicts between parties who have different interests and needs.

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The environment in Asia is already under tremendous pressure as a result of the unsustainable use of land, forests, water and even air in many regions. Climate change will only exacerbate these challenges. Rising sea levels will likely endanger densely populated areas, changes in the monsoon patterns can strongly impact agriculture, melting glaciers will increase long-term water scarcity, and extreme weather events such as heavy rainfall and cyclones can pose further hazards.

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Central America & Caribbean

Natural disasters and water scarcity are key challenges for most of Central America and the Caribbean. These challenges will become even more pronounced as the climate changes. Weak resource and disaster risk management and land disputes pose additional security challenges for large parts of the region. Several countries of Central America and the Caribbean have limited adaptive capacities as they face political instability caused by high social inequality, crime, corruption, and intra-state conflicts.

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As one of the most developed and most densely populated regions in the world, Europe makes heavy use of its resources, resulting in difficult trade-offs and negative consequences for the environment and ecosystems. Land is used for settlements, agriculture and dense infrastructure, creating problems of soil degradation. Water resources are stressed due to unsustainable agricultural practices. Despite nature protection policies, Europe continues to lose biodiversity at an alarming pace. Some of these trends are exacerbated by climate change, which is expected, for instance, to lead to shifts in water availability.

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Global Issues

Resource scarcities, environmental pollution and climate change are not limited by national borders, but often have a transboundary or even global impact. These issues interact with political stability, governance structures and economic performance, and can trigger or worsen disputes and violent conflicts. Exacerbating some of these trends, climate change is likely to lead to the degradation of freshwater resources, declines in food production, increases in storm and flood disasters and environmentally induced migration. All these developments pose potential for conflict.

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Middle East & North Africa

The geopolitical position of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), its fossil fuel resources, high population growth and the political changes spurred by the Arab Spring all make the region one of the most dynamic in the world. Nevertheless, it is also one of the most arid and environmentally stressed. Dwindling water resources, limited arable and grazing land, high pollution from household and industrial waste, remnants of conflicts and increasing desertification are key environmental challenges.

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North America

Climate change has various impacts on the three North American countries of Canada, Mexico and the US. Canada and the US have well-developed adaptive capacities and foster the strengthening of capacities in other regions as well. With high per capita emissions, these two countries also bear a greater responsibility for a changing climate. Mexico has a sound national strategy for climate change adaptation, yet fewer capacities than Canada and the US. The poorer and rural populations of Mexico are especially vulnerable to climate change, due to an increased sensitivity and a lower adaptive capacity.

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Oceania & Pacific

In Oceania, population growth and economic development trends put a strain on oceanic and island ecosystems. Freshwater scarcity, overexploitation of fisheries, loss of land biodiversity, forests and trees, invasive species, soil degradation, increasing levels of settlement, poor management of solid and hazardous waste and disproportionate use of coastal areas are some of the problems. Climate change exacerbates most of these trends, while also raising questions about the future sovereignty of some island states.

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South America

South America has diverse and unique ecosystems and is very rich in biodiversity. Weak natural resource management, land disputes and extreme weather events bring about significant challenges for the region. While South America accounts for relatively few CO2 emissions, the changing climate will alter its ecosystems and greater climate variability will lead to more hurricanes, landslides, and droughts.

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Sub-Saharan Africa

In many African states, environmental security issues rank high on the political agenda. Throughout the continent, countries suffer from water scarcity, food insecurity and energy poverty. These chronic and worsening resource scarcities have severe livelihood implications and are exacerbated by political conflicts over access to and control over these resources. Climate change may seriously threaten political and economic stability in Africa. It may also put a severe strain on the capacities of states and societies to co-ordinate activities, to communicate and to organize.

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