There has been a surge in international migration in recent years, reaching a total of 244 million individuals in 2015. Forced displacement has also reached a record high, with 65.3 million individuals displaced worldwide by the end of 2015 – including refugees, IDPs and asylum seekers. Yet while the absolute numbers have increased over the last 15 years, migrants as a percentage of total global population has remained stable at about three percent. A majority of migrants remain on their own continents – nearly nine out of ten African migrants settle on the African continent, while eight out of ten Asian migrants remain in Asia. Forced displacement is predominantly an issue outside wealthy economies:
nine out of ten refugees are hosted by low and middle-income countries.
At the Paris Climate Conference held in December 2015, 195 countries adopted the Paris Agreement – the first universal, legally binding global climate deal. The signatory parties committed themselves to a global action plan that aims to keep global warming to well below 2°C and to limit the global temperature increase to 1.5°C.
The European Union has long played a leadership role in climate diplomacy. One challenging development for future EU climate diplomacy is the centrality of technology in contemporary global interventions to deal with climate change and promote sustainable energy. Challenges and opportunities in this field of action were central to a workshop hosted by the Foundation for European Progressive Studies (FEPS) in partnership with the Transnational Law Institute (TLI) of the Dickson Poon School of Law, King’s College London, and Fondation Jean-Jaurès.
In this report, Luca Bergamaschi, Nick Mabey, Jonathan Gaventa and Camilla Born from E3G explore practical actions that EU foreign policy institutions could undertake to manage climate risk and an orderly global transition. Read on for a summary of the report here.
This paper by Sebastian Oberthür (IES – Institute for European Studies) discusses the EU’s position in climate geopolitics after COP21. It therefore highlights the importance of fora beyond the UNFCCC, arguing that the EU’s position in climate geopolitics will in large part depend its internal climate and energy policy framework for 2030 and beyond.
Given the transversal, and universal, nature of the climate challenge, what priorities should shape foreign policy action on climate issues in the decade ahead? What should be the focus of European climate diplomacy? The European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS), the l'Institute du développement durable et des relations internationales (IDDRI) and adelphi organized a meeting of senior experts and practitioners to review and build on the outcomes of COP21. The discussions revealed important ideas for using European foreign policy tools to address climate mitigation, adaptation, and finance, for responding to climate-related security and migration risks, and for improving EU climate diplomacy.
This report focuses on energy-water conflicts which are linked to the coal industry's impact on current and future water demand. Published by Greenpeace International, the study features five case studies of water conflicts due to coal expansion and identifies regions in which already existing and planned coal plants will further aggravate water scarcity.
This Briefing Paper by Sharon Turner, Quentin Genard, Josh Robers and Imke Luebbeke reacts to the various visions of European energy and climate policies after 2020 that were presented by the European Commission and EU Member States until mid-2015.
Shale gas. Unconventional and unwanted: the case against shale gas. Friends of the Earth Europe/Heinrich Böll Foundation.
The Climate and Energy Nexus: Challenges and Opportunities for Transatlantic Security. Alexandria, London: CNA/RUSI.