In the past, the discovery and tapping of valuable or strategic resources like valuable minerals, oil and natural gas, particularly in developing and emerging countries, has often led to large scale environmental contamination and negative development. The "resource curse" of some countries shows that the wealth from resource yields is frequently unfairly distributed; instead of serving development it advanced the formation of corrupt elites and in some cases even led to conflicts and civil wars. The cause of these developments is a combination of macroeconomic effects, the spread of rentier state behaviour and mentality as well as the possibility of financing weapons and comrades in arms by means of legally or illegally extracted resources. Although these effects are difficult to restrict, it is not impossible. Measures in various sectors (macroeconomic tax mechanisms and transparency in the amount and use of resource end product) and at all levels (in accordance with the principles of good governance and the guarantee of participative processes) are important contributions in order to use the potential of these natural resources in a conflict-preventing and sustainable manner.